Satellite batteries provide electrical energy during the night when the satellite is no longer illuminated by the Sun. They also serve as a charging source during the day by storing energy from solar panels. This gives the batteries a long lifespan. Satellite batteries have unique needs and must meet strict requirements for reliable operation. They must last for at least 20 years, endure extreme temperatures and radiation, and withstand impacts during launch and landing.
Lithium-ion batteries for satellites are vital for these satellites, and Saft has developed them for decades. They are used in more than 150 satellites, including GEO global positioning satellites and other high-power telecommunications satellites. They are also capable of supporting observation satellites.
One of the biggest challenges of developing batteries for satellites is overcharging, a severe problem that should be addressed during the design process. Overcharging can lead to overheating and fire, which could ruin the mission. Other conditions to avoid are short-circuiting, operating temperatures beyond preset DOD limits, and excessive current.
When designing batteries for satellites, consider environmental factors and the mission’s orbit. This factor will affect the number of cycles required. A secondary battery will be required if the Sun is out of reach for a significant amount of time. Lithium-ion batteries can be used in combination with capacitors as a hybrid system. However, Lithium-ion batteries are classified as dangerous goods by the UN, and exceptional safety regulations must be adhered to.
Battery manufacturers have developed advanced lithium-ion batteries for satellites suitable for geostationary and low-orbital missions. These batteries are designed to operate for a week or more. Lihium ion battery These technologies can be compatible with the mission’s mission requirements, and the batteries will be integrated into the modules of the satellites.
Battery technology for satellites is critical for spacecraft. For this reason, satellite manufacturers carefully consider the flight heritage of the battery to ensure reliability. They also consider the manufacturer. To guarantee the quality of the batteries, manufacturers must ensure that the batteries they use meet strict space standards. These batteries must endure rigorous quality testing before being launched and used in a constellation of satellites.
In 2005, Saft delivered Li-ion battery modules for the GIOVE second pathfinder satellite, which is part of the GALILEO program. This satellite was built by Alcatel Alenia Space on the Proteus LEO platform and is due to launch in late 2006. The mission aims to test critical elements in orbit and characterize the Galileo navigation signal.
Lithium-ion batteries for satellites are a relatively new technology, and their introduction is progressing slowly. However, there are still concerns about their life, especially for longer-duration missions. Researchers focus on improving lithium-ion batteries’ anode properties to solve these concerns. This will improve their specific energy and life.